Diabetes:A quick review

What is diabetes?
Diabetes is a disease that occurs when blood glucose is
high.It can be due to insufficient insulin in the body or inability of body to
use insulin. Glucose then increases in your blood and doesn’t reach cells
of the body.

There are four main types of diabetes
1.Type 1 diabetes-This occurs when body doesn’t make enough
insulin.It is diagnosed in children and young adults.

2.Type 2 Diabetes-This occurs when body is resistant to
insulin.It is the most common type of diabetes.Occurs in middle age and older people.

3.Prediabetes-This occurs when blood sugar is higher than
normal but not high enough to be called type 2 diabetes.

4.Gestational diabetes(diabetes in pregnancy)-This one usually
occurs during pregnancy.It usually resolves after delivery.But they are at risk
of type 2 diabetes later in life.

Risk factors for developing diabetes

  • 45 years or older in age
  • Family history
  • Lack of exercise
  • Have prediabetes
  • Have high blood pressure or high cholesterol

How diabetes is diagnosed
It can be easily determined by a blood test either a fasting
blood sugar or glycated haemoglobin(HbA1c).

Symptoms of diabetes

  • Increased hunger and thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Blurry vision
  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Yeast infection
  • Itchy skin

What are the complications of diabetes

  • Heart disease
  • Kidney disease
  • Eye problems
  • Nerve damage
  • Dental disease

How diabetes is Managed
Type I diabetes and gestational diabetes are treated with
insulin.Whereas type II diabetes is managed by blood glucose lowering drugs
like biguanides,sulphonylureas ,DPP-4 inhibitors.

How to prevent diabetes

  • Regular exercise
  • Avoid trans-fat and refined carbohydrates
  • Eat smaller portions


Type 2 diabetes is a preventable disease with certain lifestyle modifications like regular exercise and proper food intake.

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